Tom Hodgkinson quote: genius idea of a bench

Tom Hodgkinson said: Truly, the bench is a boon to idlers. Whoever first came up with the idea is a genius: free public resting places where you can take time out from the bustle and brouhaha of the city, and simply sit and watch and reflect.

Truly, the bench is a boon to idlers. Whoever first came up with the idea is a genius: free public resting places where you can take time out from the bustle and brouhaha of the city, and simply sit and watch and reflect.

Tom Hodgkinson
Man using his mobile phone as he sits on a wooden bench by a stone walkway
Man using his mobile phone as he sits on a wooden bench by a stone walkway

Happy Bench Monday!


The giver quotes: what a Receiver of memories do

When the new Receiver failed, the memories that she had received were released. They didn’t come back to me. They went…

I don’t know, exactly. They went to the place where memories once existed before Receivers were created. Someplace out there – . . . And then the people had access to them. Apparently that’s the way it was, once. Everyone had access to memories.

It was chaos… They really suffered for a while. Finally it subsided as the memories were assimilated. But it certainly made them aware of how they need a Receiver to contain all that pain. And knowledge.

The Giver, page 131, written by Lois Lowry

World wildlife day history

March 3rd is World Wildlife Day, an annual observance for flora and fauna which aims to promote wildlife conservation.

March 3rd is World Wildlife Day, an annual observance for flora and fauna.

History of World Wildlife Day

On March 3, 1973, the Thailand government, in consultation with the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES), submitted their proposal to promote “the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity” and “to ensure that no species entering into international trade is threatened with extinction.”

…We recognize the economic, social and environmental impacts of illicit trafficking in wildlife, where firm and strengthened action needs to be taken on both the supply and demand sides…

Thailand government and CITES, World Wildlife Day

With World Wildlife Day established, its importance are not only recognized, but also issues are internationally communicated; thus, enabling worldwide action to conserve it.

Convention On International Trade In Endangered Species of Wild Fauna And Flora, Strategic Matters: World Wildlife Day. Retrieved March 2, 2019 from

National Day of Unplugging

The first Friday of March is National Unplugging Day. This year, it starts from 12:00am on March 1st and ends at 12:00mn on March 2nd. If you’re joining this move, enjoy your 24-hour period of no electronic gadgets. (sigh 🤪)

Geez! I wonder how my day would be… (lol)

woman’s right hand unplugging from an extension cord
Happy National 24-Hour Day of Unplugging

How to improve your short-term memory

Short-term memory includes remembering a new name and series of cards, as well as where you put down your keys. Experts say it’s not that you’re forgetful. It’s just that you need to focus more. The brain should be properly trained for this.

Hi!  My name is Mnimi.  What’s yours?  Nice to meet you, _______!

Short-term memory includes recalling faces and their associated names.  It may probably sound easy for some but for most of us, it’s not.  I have heard many slightly embarrassing stories about forgetting one single name of a person who was just introduced to you in less than a minute ago… ⏱

Uh…  Pardon me.  What’s your name again?  …friend?

It’s really not that difficult if you just pay close attention. (“Sure” while you roll your eyes 👀) Some experts say it’s not that you can’t remember.  It’s just that you didn’t focus as much and that your brain is not “properly trained” on even the simplest short-term memory of where you put down your reading glasses 👓 . . . For.The.3rd.Time.Now…

Oh, it’s on my head.  Duh!

3 tips to remember names

According to Ron White, there are things to consider when remembering a person’s name. Let’s watch how this 2-time memory champion astonish us with his face-name and playing-card recall skills below…

Brain Games- Short Term Memory Tricks uploaded by Professor Ross, on YouTube
  • Focus on getting the person’s name.
    1. Predispose yourself to getting the person’s name by repeatedly asking yourself, “What is your name?”
  • Have pre-determine interest on that person’s name.
    1. When you’re interested on something, your natural tendency is to learn it. Similarly, if you make that new person particularly intriguing, you may want to learn more of him/her during your first meeting. Thus, you’ll remember the name.
  • Match the name to the owner’s feature.
    1. There should be a unique or distinctive feature on that person’s face that will make you remember. So, instead of asking yourself what that person’s name was, picture what stood out from his/her features.
    2. Examples: Iris might have pretty purple eyes while Barry might have a cool baritone voice.

4 tips to remember cards

  • Chunk the cards into 3 so you only need to remember 17 plus 1 left-over, out of a deck of 52 cards.
  • Use the PAO Method – person, action, object
    1. When you chunk the cards, you ‘assign’ the first card a name, 2nd, what that person is doing and 3rd, with what object.
    2. Examples: Card1 = King of Hearts = your husband or partner (person); Card2 = driving (action); Card3 = car (object).  This will make 3 cards into one image.
  • Use a memory palace.
  • Practice. Practice. Practice.

Guy de Maupassant quote: what gives life to the non-existent

Guy de Maupassant said: Our memory is a more perfect world than the universe. It gives back life to those who no longer exist.

Our memory is a more perfect world than the universe. It gives back life to those who no longer exist.

Guy de Maupassant

Jessica Farris narration: not afraid of strangers down the street

Jessica Farris, the anonymous girl, narrates that she’s not afraid of strangers as she heads towards her next assignment. She has the address in her memory. As she walks down the street, she describes the people she sees.

I don’t fear strangers though. I’ve learned more harm can come from familiar faces… I memorize the exact location then stride down the street, skirting the garbage that has spilled from a toppled bin. A shopkeeper pulls a security grate over his store front, the loud metal rattling into place. A trio of students, backpacks slung over their shoulders, jostle each other playfully as I pass them…

Jessica Farris, An Anonymous Girl, Chapter 3, written by Greer Hendricks and Sarah Pekkanen

How to remember more easily using the memory palace technique [video]

The memory palace or mind palace is a mental place to store images enabling you to recall later. It is also called the method of loci or journey method because you can travel through it in your mind to retrieve what you visually input on those loci or locations.

Using a pen and paper or your mobile phone is great. It aids you in remembering things by simply writing or typing down grocery items, phone numbers and other stuff on a notepad to view later. But wouldn’t it be better to have your own virtual list, one that doesn’t require any tangibles nor electronics? Yes, your beautiful brain…

What is a memory palace?

The memory palace, also known as the mind palace, is a mental picture of a place where you can store images and that enables you to recall later. It has been used during the ancient times and even up to now, it still is a powerful mnemonic strategy that enables you to remember a list of things in particular order.

The method of loci

The memory palace is sometimes called the method of loci or journey method because you can travel through it in your mind to retrieve what you have visually put in those loci or locations.

How the memory palace technique works?

The Memory Palace Technique by Sprouts, on YouTube

The trick to remembering numbers, things and other facts using the memory palace is to perceive items in crazy, funny, out-of-this-world ways. Outrageous objects are what people tend not to forget, don’t you think?

Now, if you’re ready, let’s begin…

  • Define your own mind palace – one that is very familiar to you.
  • Close your eyes and concentrate.
  • Imagine yourself entering the first door.
  • Mentally place – an average of 7 items – strategically in each room. For example, starting with your living room, you put an apple on the tv, a banana on the sofa, a pear on the coffee table and so on and so forth…
  • Go to your next room and leave things around.
  • Keep going to the next room if you feel necessary.
  • When you’re done and it’s time to recall, just journey back to your memory palace and walk though the locations as you visualize the items.

Regarding no. 4 above, neuroscientists postulated that an average human brain can remember 5 to 9 things at a time. This is based on the Miller Law.

So, if you have 10 virtual rooms and left 7 things each, then you are possibly going to retrieve 77 things in order when you go back in there. Just imagine . . . if you have more than 10, 20 or 30, those amazingly multitude of mental locations become part of your enormous mind palace of memories. Chances are you will never forget important matters again. 🙂

Happy Bench Monday: sun-wind allegory

Mahatma Gandhi said: The future depends on what you do today. Happy Bench Monday!

It is a cold afternoon – the wind 💨 seems angry but the sun 😎 appears delighted.

Mnimi girl wears her blue parka over a red vest. Her blue mini skirt complements over a pair of gray leggings. She shows off her at-the-moment-favorite red sneakers 👟 as she stands on a bench in a quiet park. The gushing breeze is the only sound. It pushes her but she hesitates… 🙅🏻‍♀️

“Not today,” she says. “Nothing’s gonna put me down.”

Wishing for a warm springtime 💐 when it comes… But for now, she keeps herself warm and comfy for it doesn’t look like it’s fast-forwarding. She relies on her thick fur-lined coat 🧥 to break the wind when it charges again.

Nasty wind. Happy sun. Persistent winter. Future spring. Allegory.

The future depends on what you do today.

Mahatma Gandhi

Happy Bench Monday!

Mnimi girl in blue, gray and red, standing on a park bench on a windy-but-bright afternoon
Mnimi girl in blue, gray and red, standing on a bench on a windy-but-bright afternoon

Alcohol-related brain damage and thiamine deficiency

Too much alcohol and deficiency in vitamin B may lead to brain damage, such as Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome. Those are two medical conditions that often happen together or successively. It is important to know the difference for appropriate treatment.

Clinical testings and quantitative analysis have proven that excessive alcohol can result to structural and functional organ damage as well as brain abnormalities. For one, alcoholics can develop liver cirrhosis (liver with scarred tissue) that can impact the brain. It is also possible that with chronic drinking, one may have a poor diet that will lead to Vitamin B1 or thiamine deficiency. This can also cause severe brain damage and dysfunction.

Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome

Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome (WKS) is a term for two medical conditions that often happen together – Wernicke encephalopathy and Korsakoff psychosis. While the Wernicke disease happens suddenly such that treatment is needed right away, Korsakoff patients experience long-term cognitive issues, including memory loss. (1)

Wernicke’s encephalopathy

Wernicke sufferers may have the following:

  • Confusion – You may feel confused of what is going around you.
  • Loss of muscle coordination – Your arms and legs may feel weak such that standing up and walking will be a little difficult.
  • Vision problems – Your eyes may move around quickly and you may have double-vision.

In addition to the above symptoms, there may be a feeling of dizziness when standing up due to low blood pressure. A patient may also feel a faster heartbeat but with less energy; and even feel drowsy or faint. With no immediate treatment, Wernicke encephalopathy can lead to Korsakoff syndrome. (1)

Korsakoff’s syndrome

“Korsakoff syndrome, also called Korsakoff dementia, Korsakoff psychosis, or amnesic-confabulatory syndrome, is a life-altering, permanent neuropsychiatric condition characterized by anterograde and retrograde amnesia as well as frontal lobe dysfunction and affective disturbance.” (2)

With the Korsakoff syndrome, learning is impaired because remembering new things and recent events becomes difficult. However, other thinking and social skills are relatively unaffected. An individual may seem to be able to converse properly but later forgets that occurrence entirely. (3)

This chronic memory disorder is caused by severe vitamin B1 or thiamine deficiency. It is most commonly caused by alcohol abuse although some other conditions may also cause this brain-debilitating disease. (3)

(1) What Is Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome? (2018, January 11). In WebMD Medical Reference. Retrieved from
(2) McCormick, L. M., Buchanan, J. R., Onwuameze, O. E., Pierson, Ronald K., and Paradiso, S., (2013, January 22). Beyond Alcoholism: Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome in Patients With Psychiatric Disorders. Retrieved from
(3) Korsakoff Syndrome. (n.d.). Retrieved February 11, 2019 from

History of National Margarita Day

February 22nd is National Margarita Day and celebrated annually. Per Todd McCalla, this date was chosen just for a simple reason to celebrate it.

February 22nd is National Margarita Day and celebrated annually. Per Todd McCalla, this date was chosen just for a simple reason to celebrate it.

Margaritas are great served cold or icy on a hot summer day in the beach. Hmm… Just imagine the thought . . . the feeling . . . cool breeze in your face and that cool lemon-touched tequila drink on one hand… Ahhh!

Then that flashback sound effect killed your moment. It’s February. Not even spring yet (unless you’re presently relaxing in Miami, Hawaii or other hot countries, good for you).

And so the day for margaritas was created…
(although you can just open a chilled bottle anytime sans the sunny beach. Haha.)

The man behind Margarita Day

National Margarita Day was created by Todd McCalla, an Ohio native and commercial real estate agent in Nashville. He loves margarita so much that he decided to create a special day just for it. According to him, February is a “sad, gray time of year for people and it’d be worth brightening it up with a margarita.” (1)

I really like margaritas and kind of got frustrated with all the low quality mixes with high fructose corn syrup.

Todd McCalla, phone interview with Mic online digital news

The 22nd of February was chosen for the day of margaritas to spread McCalla’s love for “this sacred tequila, triple sec and lime drink” across the globe. “Friendship, good times and memories of somewhere warmer are all great reasons to enjoy a margarita.” (2)

(1) Bratskeir, Kate. (2017, February 22). When you learn about the creator of National Margarita Day, you’ll want to celebrate even harder. Retrieved from
(2) McCalla, Todd. (n.d.). Learn About National Margarita Day – Feb. 22. Retrieved February 10, 2019 from

Alexander Fleming quote: what penicillin and wine do to people

Alexander Fleming said: Penicillin cures, but wine makes people happy.

Penicillin cures, but wine makes people happy.

Alexander Fleming


Happy Bench Monday Drink Wine Day

February 18th is Drink Wine Day. 🍷 Please drink responsibly. Don’t drink and drive. Cheers 🥂 Photo: Lady holding two wine glasses as she sits on a low white bench; two bottles of red wine sit on the floor, one almost empty, while red-and-green dark chocolate kisses scatter

February 18th is Drink Wine Day. 🍷

Please drink responsibly.
Don’t drink and drive.

Cheers 🥂

Lady sitting on a white bench while holding two wine glasses; two bottle of wine and red-and-green chocolate kisses scattered on the floor
Photo: Lady holding two wine glasses as she sits on a low white bench; two bottles of red wine sit on the floor, one almost empty, while red-and-green dark chocolate kisses scatter

Cocktail party memory deficit and alcohol-induced memory blackout [video]

Studies have shown that while working memory still functions for a brief period of time during intoxication, short-term to long-term memory conversion is disabled. The more alcohol is consumed, the more memories are impaired. With excessive blood alcohol content or BAC, the normal processes of the hippocampus in the brain is disrupted.

Some non-official holidays, such as below, are particularly linked to social drinking and merry-making. This might result to binging on alcohol. It is important to know the risk factors and the impact on your memory.

  • February 14th is Valentine’s Day.
  • February 18th is National Drink Wine Day.
  • February 22nd is National Margarita Day.
  • March 17th is St. Patrick’s Day.

So they say…

Please drink moderately. Do not drink and drive.

But once you’re on it and got past to “your moderate level”, will you be able to remember what you are not supposed to do? Will you be sane enough to make a wise decision for yourself and others?

What Happens To Your Brain When You Get Blackout Drunk by Science Insider, on YouTube

Studies have shown that alcohol can still allow the functioning of working memory but only for a brief period of time. Conversation of short-term memory into long–term, however, is disabled. The more ethanol-based beverage is consumed, the more your memory is impaired (which also has ill effects on your motor skills and executive decision-making). Excessive blood alcohol content or BAC disrupts the normal process of your hippocampus, the part of the brain responsible for creating new explicit memories.

Cocktail party memory deficit

In 1971, Ryback observed that BAC has a direct relationship with alcohol-induced long-term memory impairment. If there is a small to moderate amount of ethanol flowing in your blood stream (BAC below 0.15 percent), then there is also a small to moderate occurrence of memory deficit. This is what Ryback termed as cocktail party memory deficit – small-to-moderate memory lapses due to small-to-moderate drinking. If BAC is increased, then memory impairment will also be higher, oftentimes resulting to a blackout. (1)

Alcohol-induced blackout

A blackout is an episode of amnesia – one that is anterograde or that in which the person is unable to form new memories while intoxicated. This also means that whatever memories he or she had prior to alcohol influence, those can still be recalled once sober. (1)

Also called alcohol-induced amnesia, blackout oftentimes occurs during binge drinking – when alcohol is rapidly increased in the blood stream. The impairing effects of blood alcohol content or BAC, on memory vary among people. (2)

The possible key to having a blackout is “rapid drinking”.

Given the same levels of alcohol, evidences have shown that, as compared to men…”are at greater risk . . . for experiencing blackouts” and have more susceptibility to “milder forms of alcohol-induced memory impairments.” This is due to physiology, such as metabolism, body weigh, body fat proportion and enzyme levels. (1)

Women may experience blackouts more than men.
They are more prone to memory impairment when drunk.

2 types of blackouts

In 1969, Goodwin and colleagues studied 100 hospitalized alcoholics and found 64 had blackout episodes categorized into two types –

  • Fragmentary blackout
  • En bloc blackout

Fragmentary blackout

Fragmentary blackout is the “partial blocking of memory formation” and is the most common form of amnesic episode during intoxication. You can remember a few things or “fragments” of what has happened but not entirely. (1) It is also called brownouts in which you may remember once triggered or given a cue. (3)

En block blackout

En block blackout is when your total memory function is impaired. This is the stage of drunkenness in which actively retained information are never transferred into long-term memory. (1) It is like time-traveling without the knowledge of what has transpired during that event. (3)

Blackout vs. pass out

Passing out is when a person loses consciousness and falls into a sleep-like state. Blackout is when a person who appears conscious behaves rather uncontrollably and loses memory of what happened. (2)

To summarize, alcohol impairs memory up to the extent of how you are intoxicated. The more alcohol streaming in your blood (BAC above .15 percent), the more memory impaired you possibly become.

Please drink moderately.
Do not drink and drive.

Alcoholic drink pouring onto wine glass with a brain
Alcoholic drink pouring onto wine glass with a brain

(1) White, Aaron. (2003). What Happened? Alcohol, Memory Blackouts, and the Brain. Alcohol Research & Health, 27(2), 186-96. Retrieved from
(2) Binge Drinking & Alcohol Blackout. (2018, November 8). Retrieved from
(3) I Did What??? The Anatomy of a Blackout. (n.d.). Retrieved February 16, 2019 from

Valentine’s day in her memory

That’s why I hear people congratulate those that get engaged. For the couple, it’s like winning the lottery – your synced hearts as prizes. A romantic moment…

Such a sweet memory! Love that! ❤️


“The luckiest person in the world is the one who gets proposal from the one whom he/she loved the most”

Here’s a small poem from the memory lane………….

You made me love you from the day, I made my eye contact with you,                                   You walked in and asked for my name that was the day I knew,

The day you cried for my failure and made me realize you are there,                                           I would never felt more alive.

As the days passed, I knew it was the perfect time to propose you,                                            To…

View original post 108 more words

Did you know almond is not a nut?

Did you know that an almond is not a nut? It is the seed of an almond fruit, in which an outer fleshy part surround it pit.

An almond is not a nut but the seed of the almond fruit. Although it is typically called an almond nut, this type belongs to drupes or fruits with outer fleshy parts and pits (1) . . . such as peach and mango.

Reference:(1) Hiskey, Daven.  (2010, April 7). Almonds Are Not Nuts. Retrieved from

National Almond Day: brain benefits of almonds

National Almond Day is celebrated annually on February 16th… An almond, fruit of an almond tree, is rich in vitamins and minerals essential for good brain health, such as proteins, zinc, vitamin B6 and vitamin E.

February 16th in National Almond Day, a non-official foodie holiday that is annually celebrated.

How to Eat Almonds to Increase Memory Power by No1HealthCare, on YouTube

The nutritious almond drupe

Almonds are rich in vitamins and minerals that are essential for brain power. Some of these nutrients, according to the United States Department of Agriculture are: protein, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, zinc, niacin, choline, folate, vitamin B6 and vitamin E.

  1. Protein breaks down into amino acids, which make up the neurotransmitters. It helps the body repair brain cells that impact cognitive function, including memory /noted by Phyllis Bach, prescription for nutritional healing
  2. Zinc boosts the immune system that prevents bacteria and viral infections. This mineral is also and antioxidant – one that protects the brain cells from free radical molecules that attacks and oxidizes lipids in your bloodstream; thereby, maintaining brain function and prevent memory loss.
  3. Vitamin B6 or pyridoxine aids, according to the University of Maryland Medical Center, aids in the metabolism of proteins. It helps to increase the availability of proteins for brain cell repair and also promotes the production of neurotransmitter chemicals for better brain synapses.
  4. Vitamin E slows down aging of cells, including those in the brain that impact memory. (Note: Too much of this vitamin results to Vitamin E toxicity so please consult your doctor first if you’re thinking of taking this skin vitamin supplement. Almonds, however, will no do this kind of harm.)

Maya Angelou quote: love no barriers but hope

Maya Angelou said: Love recognizes no barriers. It jumps hurdles, leaps fences, penetrates walls to arrive at its destination, full of hope.

Love recognizes no barriers. It jumps hurdles, leaps fences, penetrates walls to arrive at its destination, full of hope.

Maya Angelou

Kids’ reactions to kisses, dates and all things Valentine’s Day

Kids are so cute and they even say their “ews” to rather silly questions in the most fascinating way. Watch…

Kids React to Valentine’s Day by Emily Frame – Small Fry, on YouTube

Valentine’s Day: open for business

Holidays are what they are today mostly because of the economic benefits they bring to big businesses. For any financial gain to be made, it is only wise to take advantage of these situations. 


Any holiday or special day is a mere celebration of some sort . . . but sometimes with an aura of something mystical . . . delightfully enchanting.

Christmas 🎄 is a season of giving; Thanksgiving 🍗 is a time of gratefulness; and Independence Day 💥 is the spirit of freedom, pride and patriotism. Even some non-official or totally odd holidays are being integrated into our subconscious. Take Spouse’s Day or Cheeeselover’s Day as an example. I can even sell Mnimi t-shirts and market a day for Wear Your Mnimi Shirt Day or something. Ha.

But anyway…


There seems to be one special day that appeals to our most basic instinct – that of being wanted and to want. Valentine’s Day.

The day of hearts is arguably the easiest holiday to promote. It’s also the easiest day to relate or deny. I mean, who doesn’t want to be loved, to love . . . or to be beloved?

So, bring it on Cupid! Flowers.💐 Chocolates.🍫. Restaurants.🍷 Red, pink, heart-shaped whatevers.💕. Just don’t get lost in all the business side of it. As the Beatles sang it: “Money can’t buy me love.”

It won’t hurt to give that single red rose 🌹 though. Its thorn will.

Valentine’s Day: Buyer Beware.

A happy Valentine’s Day greeting card
Happy Valentine!

History of Valentines Day [videos]

Valentine’s Day is annually celebrated on February 14th. Ironically, happy hearts day has a cruel history that dates back to 270 A.D. Legend even says there are 3 St. Valentines who share this very same feast day.

February 14th is Valentine’s Day, the feast day of St. Valentine. Ironically, happy hearts day history is about Christian persecution of 3 martyr Valentines.

The History of St. Valentine’s Day by breadnbeyond, on YouTube

Valentine and his secret marriages

During the 3rd century, Rome was at war among tribes. Emperor Claudius II thought his army weakened due to Roman men’s devotion to their wives and families.👨‍👩‍👧‍👦 Seeing that as a problem, he proclaimed the banning of marriages as well as engagements. (1)

Valentine, at that time, was a bishop who was one of those who opposed the unjust decree. So in defiance, the devout Catholic secretly united loving couples 💑 in holy matrimony until it was discovered. The cruel emperor then ordered his arrest and the priest was beaten with clubs. It was believed he was beheaded on February 14th around 270 A.D. (1)

Legend says…

While Bishop Valentine was waiting for his execution, he healed then became close (or may have fell in love) with his jailer’s blind daughter. Prior to his execution, the future saint wrote a farewell message 💔 to his “girl” or friend with a complimentary close saying: From your Valentine. (2)

The three St. Valentines

According to Catholic faith, there are three different St. Valentines with the very same feast day of February 14th. (3)

  1. The Roman priest-physician Valentine who comforted martyrs and was put to death under Emperor Claudius II’s order (above story)
  2. The Bishop of Interamna, now Terni in Rome, who also suffered under the same cruel emperor, was arrested and beheaded
  3. A less popular martyr in Africa was also called Valentine
The History of Valentine’s Day by, on YouTube

Valentine’s Day vs. Lupercalia

In 496 AD, Pope Gelasius made February 14th as St. Valentine’s Day.💝 It is also believed that this date was chosen by Christians to suppress the pagan fertility festival called Feast of Lupercalia, which was celebrated from February 13th to 15th. (4)

My ideal Valentine’s Day is spending it with someone you are in love with and for that someone to make you feel loved and appreciated.

Candice Swanepoel

(1) St. Valentine beheaded. (2018, August 21). In Retrieved from
(2) Breadnbeyond. (2013, February 8). The History of St. Valentine’s Day [Video file]. Retrieved from
(3) Saunders, William. (n.d.). History of St. Valentine: Who was Saint Valentine and how did he come to inspire Valentine’s Day? Retrieved February 9, 2018 from
(4) (2013, February 11). The History of Valentine’s Day [Video file]. Retrieved from

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